Temple Chichen Itza is a Mayan archaeological heritage is the most complete and still well maintained. Site Mayan civilization in Mexico was, on July 7, 2007, was chosen as one of the seven wonders of the world chosen by 100 million people via email and sms (short message service) held by the Swiss Foundation.
According to the Mayan culture of Chilam Balam, the temple complex was built between the years 502-522 AD. Mayans occupy just over 200 years, then they migrate to coastal areas in Campeche. Yet another version says, Chichen Itza was built around 800 years BC.
Pyramid of Kukulcan at the complex historic site is believed to be the center of political and economic activities of the Mayan civilization located on the Yucatan Peninsula (now the territory of Mexico).
Itza is the central point of the complex and other buildings such as the Pyramids of Kukulcan, Temple of Chac Mool, and building the Thousand Pillars.
In the temple of Chichen Itza, there are two cenotes (natural wells) that made the offerings were put. That said, the Maya Indians who inhabited the city was offering jade, ceramics, and even humans to be included in the well. Offerings were given when the drought struck.
Sometimes offerings of young girls to be put alive into the pit. The role of the well is so important because in the Yucatan Peninsula there is no river. The only source of water when the drought hit is from the pits.
The name Chichen Itza means any water on the lips of the people in the local Indian language. Thus, Chichen Itza develop into the center of Mayan culture and economic governance.
That said, Chichen Itza is a symbol of veneration and science. Chichen Itza was founded Toltec king named Quetzalcoatlyang tribe came to the Yucatan Peninsula with his troops. At that time, the Maya have lived in the area, then together Toltec tribes, began to build the temple that resembles a pyramid. Thus, the peak period of Chichen Itza is a mixture of Toltec and Mayan culture.
One of the largest temples established is Kukulkan. Based on the legend of the Maya, Kukulkan is a snake-haired incarnation of the god Quetzalcoatl. Temple of Kukulkan pyramid bertangga form, with the terraces. On each side of the rectangular pyramid there are the steps to the summit. At the top there is the entrance to the room Crown Stone Jaguar King Kukulkan, which was painted red and moss green spots.
At Chichen Itza there is also a field game similar to basketball games today. Games 'pok ta pok' ie throwing the ball through a circle on a wall 7 meters above the ground. Captain of the team who first succeeded in firing the ball will be beheaded as a sacrifice to the gods.
In 1221, an uprising broke out. Wood roofs, markets and temples destroyed knight. Power over any move to Mayapan Yucatan, until the Spanish conquerors arrived.
This temple complex is extensive and each temple apart from the others. In the middle stands the temple of El Castilo (Palace), a complete renovation. Pyramid shape, the roof just blunt. Seeing the temple of El Castilo remind us of the temple Sukuh in Karanganyar, Solo. Both temples are like a sister to El Castilo kembar.Keistimewaan temples are the steps to the top of the temple. Any date 21Maret and September 23, between day and night of equal length. At that time during the day, the steps of the temple in shadow. So that our eyes deceived, as if there is a lot of snakes up the temple. But the next day at the same time will seem as if the snake down the steps.
In the vicinity of the temple complex there is a statue called the Red Jaguar. According to Bishop Landa, in place of the ceremony is often held the victim. The victims consisted of leopard (Jaguar), turtles, turkeys, dogs or any animal heart. Even sometimes the victims are human too.
In the vicinity of the temple complex were also found eight patungChac Mool. Human-shaped sculpture with a sitting position looking up. Both tanggannya was holding offerings and head turned to the left. Chac Mool to worship the god of rain.
Still in the complex of Chichen Itza, there are two walls of equal height. Arena between the two walls that the Maya used to play ball. It is possible that the ball made of rubber, considering the surrounding area grow rubber trees. Not only the Mayas who likes to play ball, but also the Zapotec tribe.