Chichen Itza, Mexico

Site Chichen Itza is a Mayan civilization in Mexico in 800 BC century. Pyramid of Kukulcan at the complex historic site is believed to be the center of political and economic activities of the Mayan civilization located on the Yucatan Peninsula (now the territory of Mexico). Itza merupkan central point of the complex and other buildings such as the Pyramid Kukulcan, Temple of Chac Mool, and building the Thousand Pillars.

Temple Chichen Itza is a Mayan archaeological heritage is the most complete and still well maintained. Site Mayan civilization in Mexico was, on July 7, 2007, was chosen as one of the seven wonders of the world chosen by 100 million people via email and sms (short message service) held by the Swiss Foundation.

According to the Mayan culture of Chilam Balam, the temple complex was built between the years 502-522 AD. Mayans occupy just over 200 years, then they migrate to coastal areas in Campeche. Yet another version says, Chichen Itza was built around 800 years BC.

Pyramid of Kukulcan at the complex historic site is believed to be the center of political and economic activities of the Mayan civilization located on the Yucatan Peninsula (now the territory of Mexico).

Itza is the central point of the complex and other buildings such as the Pyramids of Kukulcan, Temple of Chac Mool, and building the Thousand Pillars.

In the temple of Chichen Itza, there are two cenotes (natural wells) that made the offerings were put. That said, the Maya Indians who inhabited the city was offering jade, ceramics, and even humans to be included in the well. Offerings were given when the drought struck.

Sometimes offerings of young girls to be put alive into the pit. The role of the well is so important because in the Yucatan Peninsula there is no river. The only source of water when the drought hit is from the pits.

The name Chichen Itza means any water on the lips of the people in the local Indian language. Thus, Chichen Itza develop into the center of Mayan culture and economic governance.

That said, Chichen Itza is a symbol of veneration and science. Chichen Itza was founded Toltec king named Quetzalcoatlyang tribe came to the Yucatan Peninsula with his troops. At that time, the Maya have lived in the area, then together Toltec tribes, began to build the temple that resembles a pyramid. Thus, the peak period of Chichen Itza is a mixture of Toltec and Mayan culture.

One of the largest temples established is Kukulkan. Based on the legend of the Maya, Kukulkan is a snake-haired incarnation of the god Quetzalcoatl. Temple of Kukulkan pyramid bertangga form, with the terraces. On each side of the rectangular pyramid there are the steps to the summit. At the top there is the entrance to the room Crown Stone Jaguar King Kukulkan, which was painted red and moss green spots.

At Chichen Itza there is also a field game similar to basketball games today. Games 'pok ta pok' ie throwing the ball through a circle on a wall 7 meters above the ground. Captain of the team who first succeeded in firing the ball will be beheaded as a sacrifice to the gods.

In 1221, an uprising broke out. Wood roofs, markets and temples destroyed knight. Power over any move to Mayapan Yucatan, until the Spanish conquerors arrived.

This temple complex is extensive and each temple apart from the others. In the middle stands the temple of El Castilo (Palace), a complete renovation. Pyramid shape, the roof just blunt. Seeing the temple of El Castilo remind us of the temple Sukuh in Karanganyar, Solo. Both temples are like a sister to El Castilo kembar.Keistimewaan temples are the steps to the top of the temple. Any date 21Maret and September 23, between day and night of equal length. At that time during the day, the steps of the temple in shadow. So that our eyes deceived, as if there is a lot of snakes up the temple. But the next day at the same time will seem as if the snake down the steps.

In the vicinity of the temple complex there is a statue called the Red Jaguar. According to Bishop Landa, in place of the ceremony is often held the victim. The victims consisted of leopard (Jaguar), turtles, turkeys, dogs or any animal heart. Even sometimes the victims are human too.

In the vicinity of the temple complex were also found eight patungChac Mool. Human-shaped sculpture with a sitting position looking up. Both tanggannya was holding offerings and head turned to the left. Chac Mool to worship the god of rain.
Still in the complex of Chichen Itza, there are two walls of equal height. Arena between the two walls that the Maya used to play ball. It is possible that the ball made of rubber, considering the surrounding area grow rubber trees. Not only the Mayas who likes to play ball, but also the Zapotec tribe.
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Raja Ampat Island, Indonesia

Raja Ampat casts a spell on all who visit – scientists, photographers, novice divers and crusty sea-salts alike. This group of majestic islands, located in the northwestern tip of Indonesia’s Papuan “Bird’s Head Seascape,” lies in the heart of the coral triangle, the most bio-diverse marine region on earth.
As stunningly beautiful above water as it is below, Raja Ampat (which literally translates as “The Four Kings”) has a startling diversity of habitats to explore. Each of these – from the stark wave-pounded slopes that drop away beneath the karst cliffs of Wayag and Uranie to the deep, nutrient-rich bays of Mayalibit, Kabui and Aljui to the “blue watermangrove” channels of Kofiau and Gam to the plankton-rich upwelling areas of Misool and the Dampier Strait – are home to unique assemblages of species that, when taken together, add to produce the most impressive species lists ever compiled for a coral reef system of this size.

The Raja Ampat Island in Irian is group spreads out over a huge area and consists of over 610 islands. The four largest islands are Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati and Misool. The area's reefs are covered in a diverse selection of both hard and soft corals. Most of the areas reefs are pristine, with mile after mile of perfect hard corals, drift after drift of soft corals of many species and colors ranging from brilliant red, to shocking yellow pretty pink and exotic purple. Most reef dives are very colorful. The tourist would be able to experience the best dives sites within those islands, which include Cape Kri, Mellisa's Garden, Sardines Reef, The Passage, Nudibranch Rock, Wai Island Night Dive.

Raja Ampat is the western island of Papua Island. The name of Raja Ampat based on the legend. This area had begun with 6 eggs that found by King Waikew in Waigeo Island. But from the 6 eggs, just 5 eggs had crack. The last was become an egg stone till now on.

From the fifth eggs that had cracked, the 4 eggs was become men who become King of four big islands that is Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati and Misool. While the one egg became a woman, had wash away and stranded in Biak Island. That woman was born a child named Gura Besi that known as the historical man of Raja Ampat, because of his heroic story.

Raja Ampat Islands waters according to various sources, is one of the 10 best waters for diving sites around the world. In fact, it may also be recognized as number one for the completeness of underwater flora and fauna at this time.
A team of experts from Conservation International, The Nature Conservancy, and National Oceanographic Institutions (Lon) Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) have done a quick assessment in 2001 and 2002. As a result, they noted in these waters there are more than 540 species of hard corals (75% of the total species in the world), more than 1,000 species of reef fish, 700 types of mollusks, and the highest record for gonodactyloid stomatopod crustaceans. This makes 75% of the world's coral species in Raja Ampat. None of the places with the same area has a number of coral species as much as this.

For the fauna sector, Raja Ampat has rarely fauna, such as; red birds of paradise (Paradise Rubra), Wilson birds of paradise (Cicinnurs Republica), Maleo Waigeo (Spilocuscus Papuensis), and rainbow fishes. Hence, for the flora, Raja Ampat has many kinds of Orchids, Waigeo palm, ironwoods or black woods, 'keruing', 'ulin' woods, etc.

Papua Diving, the only exotic resort that offers underwater tours in the region, visited by tourists diving enthusiasts at home for days and even up to a month-ford the contours of the seabed. They seemed to not want to go back to their own countries because they have "no island paradise
both on this earth. "

Maximillian J Ammer, a Dutch citizen of Papua Diving Resort owners are also pioneers of marine tourism drive ini.Sejak region started her business eight years ago, many of the funds must be spent. However, the results are also satisfactory. Each year the resort is visited at least 600 special tourist who spent an average of two weeks. Lodging is very simple that only a walled and roofed woven palm leaves that cost at least 75 euros, or Rp 900,000 a night. If you want to dive must pay 30 euros, or approximately USD $ 360,000 once a dive at one particular location. Most tourists come from Europe. Only a few tourists from Indonesia to stay and dive in there.

Visiting these islands is not too difficult although it takes time and considerable expense. We can use the airline flight from Jakarta to Sorong via Manado for 6 hours of flight. From Sorong-town big enough and quite complete facilities for exploring the Raja Ampat, there are two choices, go on tour with the boat or stay in the resort pinisi Papua Diving.

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KREMLIN Moskwa Rusia

The Kremlin is a historic fortress in central Moscow was built of brick in the 15th century. The length of the wall more than 2 km, height up to 19 m, width 3.5 to 6.5 m, the extent of 27.5 ha. The Kremlin has 20 towers. The most famous of them is Spasskaya Tower (height 67.3 m) in diameter at 6 m. In the Kremlin there is the old relics like the churches with the tsar's burial-place of the Russian tsar. Here also there are weapons in the hall where there are a variety of heritage items including horse-drawn carriage, crown, clothes, jewelry and weapons belonging to the tsar.

Kremlin, Moscow, not just the central Russian government. Nor is it merely a complex that surrounded the castle and towers on the end there were stars with the dominance of red and green. The Kremlin is also a place to learn and enjoy the wealth of history, culture, religion, architecture, and Russian art.

From the outside, often times the existing buildings in the Kremlin do not appear attractive. But, try to get into, splendor and beauty of previously unimaginable will make us chuckle dazzled and amazed.

For centuries, the Kremlin became the witness of many famous and tragic events in Russian history. The weapons the enemy tried to tear down the walls of the Kremlin who solid. Celebrations and successive rebellions occurred in the vicinity of the Kremlin. However, the Kremlin is now still standing strong and the main attraction of Moscow.

Now the Kremlin, Moscow, is one of the largest museums in the world. The signs of the greatness of the Russian state, the pictures are incredibly beautiful, Russian property czar, to the stunning cathedral can be seen here. Kesohoran Kremlin was combined with the Red Square is now entered as a cultural heritage protected by UNESCO, one of the agencies of the United Nations.

In the usual map given to tourists, the Kremlin is so conspicuous location. Kremlin complex which is almost like the shape of a triangle with 20 towers have various cathedrals, museums, to the beautiful palaces. Outside the castle, there is Red Square in the center of attention at Saint Basil's Cathedral which has a brightly colored domes, Lenin's Tomb, GUM shopping center, and the Museum of History that the building is red.

Moscow is the capital of the Russian empire under Ivan the Great in the 15th century. Moscow lost its status as the capital when Peter the Great moved to Saint Petersburg in 1721. Nevertheless, Moscow still continued as a center of culture and industry.

Greatness of Moscow as the seat of government of the Soviet Union back in 1918, in Lenin's government. Some places in the Kremlin is open to the public and visited by many tourists. Because the Kremlin is also a center of government, sometimes the places tourists was closed to the public without prior notice. "To come here was better in groups arranged by travel agents. Many times tourists disappointed because it was coming but could not enter," said Irine Alexandrova, our tour guide.

Places frequented by, among others, the Armory Museum is the oldest museum in Russia. Collection-collection is so amazing, such as jewelry, weapons, wealth and property empire. Formerly Armory is a room that was built in the days of Tsar Nicholas I in 1840 to save the Kremlin's growing collection, consisting of jewelry, embroidered clothing, robes of state / official, weapons, items of mail, and a statue or picture saint.

Unfortunately in this museum visitors are not allowed to take pictures. In fact, the collection-collection of beautiful and charming attractive to be photographed. There are collections of garments, crown, throne, and train Russian from the Middle Ages until the 20th century. Collections enough attention is the eggs with a variety of sizes and encrusted with beautiful stones that are traditionally exchanged at Easter between tsar and tsarita every year.

Cathedral in the Kremlin also pity to miss. From the outside it looked interesting, only buildings with white paint on top of the dome as the dome of the mosque there are golden in color. But go to the cathedral, the entire wall covered with beautiful paintings. Really charming. Unfortunately once again visitors are not allowed to take pictures.

Another collection that is here is that a cannon cannon Emperor's oldest and largest in the world. Then there's the bell that is placed on the floor of the Emperor which partially broken. Guides usually advise visitors to touch this bell and praying because the bell is considered to be able to give good luck.

Grief behind beauty
Visiting Moscow in the summer, when the long day because the sun was completely submerged at 22.00, a good time to enjoy the rich history, culture, and other popular places in Moscow. At least for the Kremlin and Red Square and pulled it wide.

Red Square with a length of 695 meters and 130 meters wide was popular as a military parade and other celebrations. The word "red" instead of some stronghold of the dominant red or communist symbol. But the "red" in Russian language also refers to the meaning of beautiful.

Each building in Red Square has its own legend. Here there are graves of Lenin, right in front of the fortress of the Kremlin, Saint Basil's Cathedral is famous for its beauty, GUM shopping center, and the Museum of History.

Body of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin's embalmed can be seen in public since his death in 1924. On the day Lenin died, the Government of the Soviet Union received 10,000 telegrams from all over Russia, who asked that Lenin's body could be seen the next generation. Each of January 21, this cemetery was visited a lot of people who send flowers. Next to Lenin's body there is also a body of Joseph Stalin, who died on December 31, 1953.

A striking beauty of Red Square is the Cathedral of Saint Basil. The towers of this cathedral has unique characteristics with attractive colors.

However, behind the beauty of the cathedral that was built when Ivan the Terrible to power in the 15th century saved the story of grief. The architect, Postnik Yakovlev, accidentally blinded on the orders of Ivan to prevent him build a more beautiful cathedral of Saint Basil. The cathedral was built to commemorate Ivan the Terrible success against the Tartars in Mongolia at the 1552 siege of the city of Kazan.

Cathedral which consists of nine chapels with the uniqueness of each symbol was designed based on strong beliefs, and are intended to provide a snapshot of the New Jerusalem, the Kingdom of Heaven which is described in the Book of Revelation.

The beauty of Saint Basil is also never tempted the heart of Napoleon. He insisted on going to move this to the Paris cathedral, but there is no adequate technology. Napoleon ordered that the cathedral was destroyed with gunpowder to blow up, but suddenly rain. The destruction was total failure.

In the communist period under the Bolshevik regime, the cathedral was closed and church leaders were killed. Furthermore, in the reign of Stalin, his close friend, Lazar Kaganovich, who was the Director of Planning Reconstruction Red Square, suggested that the cathedral was demolished.

The goal that the vast Red Square as well as facilitate the movement of public parades and vehicle movement in the field.

Luckily Stalin rejected the idea. The rejection was thanks to the courage and observers of Russian culture architect, P Baranovsky. When ordered to tear down the church, he refused and threatened to cut her throat.

Then he sent a telegram at length about his refusal that. Stalin eventually undo the destruction and as his wages, Baranovsky was awarded five years imprisonment.

Another beautiful Cathedral outside the Kremlin is the Cathedral of the Savior Jesus. Large dome of luminous yellow and structure of the new building of the cathedral seen in all of central Moscow and is the largest church in Russia. The original church was built Konstantin Ton in 1839-1881 to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. In 1933 the church was destroyed on the orders of Stalin.

Orthodox Cathedral in all the walls are filled with religious paintings of saints to be rebuilt in the 1990s. In this church, visitors can see the symbol of Russia's spiritual revival after the Communists ruled.

When tired of walking around the Kremlin, many tourists are boating on the river Moscow. By down the river, we still can see the landmarks identified with the Moscow Kremlin. In the middle of the river there is also a statue of Peter the Great. With the cost of 250 rubles for adults and 150 rubles for children, for one hour visitors enjoy the beauty of Moscow, including through Gorky Park.
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Angkor Wat

Angkor Wat is a temple situated in Cambodia and is regarded as one of the wonders of the world. It was built by King Suryavarman II in the mid 12th century. Development of Angkor Wat temple took 30 years. Angkor Wat Angkor is located in the plains who also filled the building beautiful temples, lovely, but Angkor Wat is the most famous temple in Angkor plain.

King Suryavarman II build Angkor Wat according to Hindu belief that laid the mountain Meru as the center of the world and is home to Hindu deities, with the central tower of Angkor Wat is the tallest tower and the main tower built Angkor Wat.

As the tale of Mount Meru, the temples of Angkor Wat is surrounded by walls and the canal which represents the ocean and mountains that surround the world. The main entrance to Angkor Wat and a half miles along the railing decorated with hand holder and flanked by man-made sea that are recognized as Barays.

The entrance to the temple of Angkor Wat through the gate, representing the rainbow that connects your jambatan between the natural world with the nature of the gods.

Angkor Wat is in good condition compared to other temples in the plains due to Angkor Wat Angkor have been exchanged into continual kuilBuddha and used to replace the trust if the trust Hindu Buddha at Angkor in the 13th century. Angkor Temples never colonized by Siam in 1431.

For centuries, the area around the Mekong River delta and Central Cambodia, under the authority of the Kingdom of Java (now Indonesia). But in the year 802, Khmer prince Jayavarman II, who was born and raised in the palace of the kingdom of Java during Sailendra dynasty, declared that the territory inhabited by Khmer people, apart from Java. And later founded a new kingdom, the kingdom of Angkor.

Prince Javawarman II was crowned as Devaraja (divine king) by a Brahman priest. In subsequent years, Jayavarman repeatedly moved its capital. First of all in Indrapura (east of Kampong Cham), then to Wat Phou (now the southern tip of Laos) and last in Rolous (near Angkor).

In the year 889, Yasovarman I becomes king of Khmer. He began to build Angkor, which was later renamed Yasodharapura. RajaYasovarman reigned until the year 900.

In 1002, Suryavarman I seize the throne. Under his rule, the Angkor empire expands into areas that now is the country of Thailand and Laos.

In 1080, after Angkor was conquered by the kingdom of Champa, the governor of northern province of Khmer declared himself as king, through whom the name of Jayavarman VI. He ruled the new Khmer empire from the northern province of Khmer. In 1113, a nephew of Jayavarman VI is crowned king of the Khmer Kingdom. He chose to bear the name of Suryavarman II. In his reign, Angkor Wat was built.

In 1177, Angkor was again conquered by troops of Champa. Jayavarman VII, the niece of Suryavarman II, became king in 1181 and later conquest of Vijaya, the capital of the kingdom of Champa (now Vietnam). Under the rule of Jayavarman VII, Khmer territory expands, even the largest of which once belonged. Its territory to reach Thailand and Laos, even up to Myanmar, Malaysia and Vietnam. Jayavarman VII changed religion from Hinduism to Buddhism and made the national religion of Buddhism as new.

In 1200, Angkor Thom as the capital of the new empire, began construction. Development huge Angkor Thom, has drained the resources of the Khmer Empire. So in subsequent years, the Khmer have problems in the economy.

In the ensuing decades, began to seem a setback at Angkor. In the West, Thai kingdoms dominated the political forces. In the East, Vietnam kingdoms increasingly uphill. As a small country, Cambodia try to survive.

Khmer Kingdom relies heavily on the kingdoms of Tai and Vietnamese. In order to be free from oppression conquering one country, the Khmer needs help from other powerful countries. But the Khmer have to pay all its debts as payment of compensation.

In 1432, after Angkor was conquered again by the royal Thai, Khmer people leave the capital and stay in the woods.
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Colosseum Roma

Colosseum is a historical relic in the form of a large theater / Amphitheater which is one of the "Seven Wonders of the World Middle Ages." Located in the State Capital of Italy, Rome, called the original "Flavian Amphitheatre", founded by King Vespasian and completed by his son Titus.

Regarding the year of manufacture until now there are still differences of faith. Some argue that the Colosseum was made in the year 79 BC, there is also an opinion that was made between the years 70-82 AD.
But most archaeologists believe that the Colosseum was made in the year 70-82 AD Originally Colosseum name comes from a statue 130 feet or 40 meters called Colossus. Colosseum is set to accommodate 50,000 spectators.

Building Construction
Reconstruction of the Colosseum started from the command of King Vespasian in 72 AD and completed by his son Titus in 80 AD Colosseum established close to Nero's enermous Palace, Domus Aurea that had been built in after the great fire in Rome in AD 64 Some historians believe that construction of the Colosseum was financed by way of robbing a big temple in Jerusalem by order of King Herod in AD 64

Dio Cassius a historian said that there are about 9000 wild animals who have been killed in 100 days as a celebration of the inauguration and opening of the Colosseum. The floor of the Colosseum arena was covered by sand to prevent blood-the blood does not flow anywhere.

In the Colosseum at the time was venue for a spectacular show, which is a fight between animals (venetaiones), the fight between prisoners and animals, the execution of prisoners (noxii), water fight (naumachiae) by flooding the arena, and the battle between gladiators (munera .) For hundreds of years, the estimated thousands of people and animals die in the Colosseum show.

The name of the Colosseum as in the above is taken from the name of a statue 130 feet or 40 m, Colossus.

Colossus Statue remade as a substitute for Nero as the parable of the Sol, the sun god, by adding the crown of the sun. In the mid-year, Colossus statue has disappeared. An expert said that since the statue was made of copper, the statue has been merged for reuse.

In addition to named Colossus, the Colosseum is also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre is not known who gave the name. In Italy, the Colosseum was named il colosseo but other Roman languages ​​use the name Le Colisée and el coliseo to mention the Colosseum.

Colosseum is large enough. With a height of 48 m, length 188 m, 156 m wide and the area around the building about 2.5 ha to make the Colosseum looks so big and spacious. Wooden arena measuring 86 mx 54 m, and covered by sand. Elliptical or spherical shape of the Colosseum point to prevent the players to flee to the corner and prevents the audience to be closer to the show.

Colosseum is a very great work. The place is said to be a great and spectacular stage due to the shape and structure of the Colosseum. Even now, the Colosseum is still said to be a great stadium and spectacular. Seating in the Colosseum are divided into different levels.

Podium, the first place to sit is devoted to the Roman senators. Special room for the king, resting place, where the property is also on this level. Under the podium is maeniaum Primum, which is devoted to the Roman nobility. The third level is maenianum Primum which is divided again into three parts. Bottom (immum) was used for the wealthy, at the top again (summum), used for the commoners. And finally, in the wood (maenianum secundum in legneis) is where the structure of wood at the top of the building. That place is a place that used to stand for women inferior.

After 2 years of the Colosseum used as a venue, the youngest daughter of Vespasian ordered to construct an underground area (Hypogeum), two levels of underground lines that are interconnected in the form of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals are placed before the fight begins. There is also provided the pitfalls of a trap door that is used to prevent entry of wild animals are not planned into the arena and to keep the weapons storage area in the Colosseum.

Colosseum is still in use until the year 217, although it has been damaged by fire due to being struck by lightning. Colosseum has been improved in the year 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christian people gradually stop the game because it takes too many casualties.

The building used to store various types of animals until the year 524. Two earthquakes in the years 442 and 508 cause severe damage to the building. In the Middle Ages, the Colosseum suffered severe damage caused by the earthquake again that in the year 847 and 1349 and serve as a fortress and a church was also established there.

Many marble stones are used to coat and rebuild the parts of the Colosseum which was damaged by fire. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Roman families to use the Colosseum as a place of extraction of marble stone for building constructions St. Peter's Basilica and special residence palazzi, Roman family.

In the year 1749, there is a form of maintenance of the Colosseum. Pope Benedict XIV forbade to use the Colosseum as a place of mining. In 2000 there was an outcry in Italy in order to oppose the use of the death penalty for countries around the world (in Italy, the death penalty abolished in 1948).

Some demonstrators wore a place in front of the Colosseum. Since then, as a gesture against the law of capital, the local residents to change the color of the Colosseum in the evening from white to gold by using the lighting of candles and neon lights, until the whole world where death penalty was abolished action.
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Machu Picchu Peru

Machu Picchu ("Old Mountain" in Quechua language, often called "the lost Inca City") is a location of pre-Columbian Inca ruins located in the mountains at an altitude of about 2350 m. Machu Picchu is above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, about 70 km northwest of Cusco.

Machu Picchu is a symbol of the most famous Incan Empire. Built in about 1450, but abandoned a hundred years later, when the Spaniards had conquered the Incan Empire.

This site was forgotten by the international community, but not by the local community. This site re-discovered by archaeologists from the university YaleHiram Bingham III, who found it again in 1911. Peru then do the legal efforts to retrieve artifacts taken by Bingham from the site. Since then, Machu Picchu became a tourist attraction that appeals to local and foreign tourists.

Machu Picchu was built by the ancient Incan style with walls of polished stone. The main building is Intihuatana, Temple of the Sun, and Three Window Room. These places are referred to as the Sacred District of Machu Picchu.

The site has been designated as a UNESCO world Heritage Site since 1983, Machu Picchu is also one of the Seven Wonders of the New World, is also getting attention due to the damage caused by tourism (the number of visitors reached 400,000 in 2003).

In September of 2007, Peru did legal efforts with the achievement of an agreement with UniversitasYale to retrieve artifacts have been brought by Bingham from the site in the early 20th century.

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